A Trade Mark application goes through several phases before the mark is finally registered on the Register of Trade Marks. Briefly: 1. Once an application is filed, it is taken on record and assigned a filing number and date. The Registry confirms the filing of new application by issuing a duly endorsed representation sheet with the filing date and number stamped on it. An application for registration of a trade mark can also be filed electronically. 2. Thereafter, the application is examined to determine whether the mark in question is eligible for registration. The Registry issues an examination report that communicates any objection to registration it may have. Within one month from the date of receipt, the Applicant is required to submit reply to the examination report (that may be substantiated with evidence) traversing the Registry's objections. If the examiner is satisfied with the submissions made in the reply to examination report then the mark is allowed to proceed to advertisement stage. Alternatively, a hearing is appointed for the Applicant to make appropriate representation in person. Generally, a single hearing is sufficient for the Registry to either allow the mark to proceed for advertisement or refuse it. However, in some cases, the Registry may appoint two or more hearings before issuing its final decision. 3. If the Applicant's representations are successful then the mark proceeds to advertisement in the Trade Marks Journal where it is open for opposition for a period of four months. Otherwise, the order conveying the Registry's refusal is sent to the Applicant, who may appeal the decision before the Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB). 4. Upon advertisement of the mark, any person may oppose its registration on grounds enumerated in the Trade Marks Act, 1999. Once an opposition is lodged, the Registry must dispose of the opposition judicially before it can take any further action on the application. In case, the opposition is decided in Applicant's favor, then the opposition is dismissed and the mark will proceed to registration. Alternatively, the opposition is sustained and the mark will be refused registration. Either party has the right to appeal the Registry's decision before the IPAB. 5. Once all these stages have been cleared, the Trade Marks Registry issues a registration certificate for the said Trade Mark and the same stands valid for a period of 10 years. Thereafter, it can be renewed further for a period of 10 years at a time.